Introduction. Before the start of haemodialysis procedures, the patient must have access to large blood vessels. The purpose of this access is to allow adequate blood flow through the dialyser and to have a long service life and be safe for the patient. An arteriovenous fistula can be made from the patient's own vessels or using artificial material. The central catheter may be longterm or temporary. The choice of the type of vascular access depends on the patient's health condition and whether haemodialysis must be performed urgently. Therefore, proper care of the created access to blood vessels becomes so important.
The aim of the study. The aim of the study was to discuss the types of vascular access in renal replacement therapy, with particular attention paid to the care of the created vascular access.
Selection of material. The search was conducted in the Scopus database for the period 2002-2019, using the terms hemodialysis, non-tunnelled catheters, Seldinger method, tunnelled catheters, fistulas from own vessels, care of vascular accesses. From the literature found in the Google Scholar database, studies were selected which, in the opinion of the authors, would be most useful in the preparation of this study.
Conclusions. A dialysis patient should be fully aware that the possibility of haemodialysis and thus the achievement of an optimal quality of life in a difficult disease depends on their involvement. It is the duty of every patient to have a high sense of responsibility for the condition of their own vascular access and to cooperate constantly with nursing staff in this respect. If it is not possible to educate a patient, cooperation with the patient's immediate family is essential.