Introduction: Explaining the nomenclature and interpreting the symptoms of mental disorders is not possible without knowing the culture and social context, because what will be seen as a disease in some societies can be described as possession in others. One can be tempted to state that mental illness is not only an objective state, but can be a social label given to people who break accepted norms in a given society.
Aim of the study. The aim of this study was to present the symptoms and diagnosis of selected mental disorders.
Selection of material. The search was conducted in the Scopus database using the terms depression, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, neurological disorders (anxiety disorders), symptoms, diagnosis 1982-2018. The literature found in the Google Scholar database was analysed for the highest number of citation. The literature selected in this way was used as the material for this study.
Conclusions. Due to the similarity of somatic symptoms of many mental disorders, these states should be differentiated very carefully. This applies first and foremost to rescue/rescue departments - especially in cases of first-time/beginning symptoms.